What Are Access and Refresh Tokens?

Access and refresh tokens are integral components of authentication and authorization processes in modern web and mobile applications. Let’s break down the concepts and differences between them in a beginner-friendly guide

What are Tokens?

Tokens are pieces of information that applications use to prove the identity of a user (authentication) and grant access to specific resources (authorization).

Access Tokens

An Access Token is like a digital key card that proves the user’s identity and grants access to certain resources. Once a user successfully logs in, the server issues an access token. It typically has an expiration time to enhance security.

Access tokens can take various forms, such as bearer tokens, MAC tokens (Message Authentication Code), or JWTs (JSON Web Tokens). Each type has its own characteristics and use cases, depending on the security requirements of the application.

Refresh Tokens

Refresh Tokens are used to obtain a new access token after the original one expires. They are long-lived compared to access tokens, reducing the frequency of user logins. They are stored securely on the server and not exposed to the client-side.

How They Work Together

When a user logs in, the server generates both an access token and a refresh token. The access token is sent with each request to access protected resources. If the access token expires, the client can use the refresh token to obtain a new access token without requiring the user to log in again.

FeatureAccess TokenRefresh Token
PurposeGrants access to specific resources on behalf of a userUsed to obtain a new access token after it expires
LifespanShort-lived, typically minutes to hoursLong-lived, lasting for days or even weeks
UsageSent with each request to access protected resourcesUsed only to request a new access token
SecurityRequires secure transmission (e.g., HTTPS)Requires secure transmission (e.g., HTTPS)
StoredStored on the client-sideStored securely on the server-side
Exposure RiskExposed to potential interception if not over HTTPSMinimizes exposure risk, as it’s not sent with requests
ResponsibilityClient application is responsible for token handlingServer is responsible for refreshing and issuing new tokens
Frequency of UseUsed frequently during an active sessionUsed less frequently, mainly when the access token expires
ScopeDefines the permissions and resources the user can accessTypically does not contain detailed user permissions
RevocationCan be revoked by the authorization serverTypically not revocable, but server can expire it
Example Use CaseAccessing a user’s profile or posting on their behalfObtaining a new access token without reauthentication

Example Scenario:

  • A user logs into a social media app. After successful authentication, the server issues an access token and a refresh token.
  • The app includes the access token in API requests to fetch the user’s data.
  • If the access token expires, the app uses the refresh token to obtain a new access token without requiring the user to log in again.

Security Considerations

Token Security Best Practices:

Implementing secure token practices involves using secure communication channels, employing strong encryption, and following best practices for token storage and transmission.

Token Expiry and Revocation:

Setting appropriate token expiration times is crucial for security. Additionally, mechanisms for token revocation ensure that compromised tokens are rendered invalid promptly.

Token Scopes and Permissions:

Token scopes define the level of access granted to an application. It is essential to implement proper scope management to prevent unauthorized access to sensitive data.

Common Use Cases

Mobile and Web Applications:

Access and refresh tokens are extensively used in mobile and web applications to provide secure access to user data and services. They enable a seamless user experience without compromising security.

Single Sign-On (SSO):

Token-based authentication is a cornerstone of Single Sign-On systems, allowing users to authenticate once and access multiple services without repeated logins.

Microservices Architecture:

In a microservices architecture, access and refresh tokens facilitate communication between services, ensuring that each service can securely access the resources it needs.

Challenges and Solutions

Token Hijacking and Mitigation:

Token hijacking occurs when attackers gain unauthorized access to tokens. Implementing secure token transmission and storage practices can mitigate the risk of token hijacking.

Token Leakage and Prevention:

Token leakage happens when tokens are exposed unintentionally. Techniques like token scrubbing and secure logging help prevent and detect token leakage.

Token Replay Attacks:

Token replay attacks involve reusing captured tokens. To mitigate these attacks, token expiration times should be set appropriately, and anti-replay mechanisms can be implemented.


Understanding access and refresh tokens is crucial for building secure and user-friendly applications that require authentication and authorization. These concepts form the foundation for user identity management in the digital landscape.

Thank you for reading.

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